Electric Vehicles Unplugged
The fleets of electric vehicle globally have increased by 500 percent in the last decade and are expected to grow at the same pace for the next decade. Norway claims to have about one-third of the total registrations of electric vehicles. With the cosmic growth of BEV China is expected to produce 6.8 M electric vehicles in 2021.
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The range of electric vehicles is a prominent issue with current technology. The technology is still evolving and new methods of fast charging are being introduced day in day out to reassure the driver that they can charge and hit the roads back in a short time period. The challenge with these developments is that every new solution has its own hardware and software fix. All of them are different for each other.
Fast charging was available in 2011 in the form of CHAdeMO infrastructure developed by Japanese automakers but it did not grow very fast. Some companies tried to discredit CHAdeMO si it was not approved by SAE and developed a different system under SAE for fast-charging. On the other hand, the Chinese developed their own standard and Tesla rolled out Supercharger.
These developments created chaos in the electric vehicle market and delayed the adoption and construction of infrastructure.
The customer can opt for-
- Home charging
- Public Charging Station
- Charging at work
All these options vary in the type of plug and port used, the speed of charging also depends on it.
About 80 percent of the Electric and hybrid cars are charged at home. There are two levels in which the cars are charged at home-
- Level 1- The car is charged using the charger provided with the car which is plugged into the 120 V supply at home and the connection is closed with the car. Depending on the country the input voltage can be different for America and Canada it is 120 V but for a majority of the countries, it is 230 V. This system provides a range of 200 kilometers in 20 hours.
- Level 2- THese chargers have an SAE J1772 connector which is plugged into a 240V supply. It allows 3-7 times faster charging and for countries with 120 V supply external charger setup is installed to make use of this system.
Home charging is profitable as –
- It lets you start your day with full charge ready to get through all your daily travel schedule. Level 2 charging is recommended for homes to use your electric machine to the fullest.
- Home charging gives you the flexibility to charge your vehicle when the tariff for electricity is lowest. Generally, the cost of electricity is higher in the daytime and lower at night.
Public Electric Vehicle Charging Station
These counterparts of petrol stations for Electric cars are located near the highways, restaurants and shopping centers. They play a crucial role in extending the range of your electric vehicle in return for a halt for about half an hour.
The public charging stations also have an option of Level 1 and Level 2 charging with the SAE J1772 plug. One interesting feature of owning a Tesla vehicle is that you get an additional adapter for connecting to the J1772 plug.
The Charging stations also have Level 3 charging system installed. Level 3 charging system is capable of charging about 80 percent of the batteries in half an hour. But the connectors of Level 3 charging are not interchangeable. The three most used connector types are as follows-
- CHAdeMO– Formed by the Tokyo Electric Power Company, Nissan, Mitsubishi, and Fuji Heavy Industries, CHAdeMo connector delivers about 62.5 KW of high voltage, about 500 VDC and direct current, about 125 A. It is an abbreviation for “CHArge de Move” which translates to charge for the moving. As it is a type of DC fast charging the cars with this connector have a separate port for AC level 2 charging.
- SAE Combo Charging System– It is developed by SAE from the existing J1772 plug by adding two large pins for high power DC. It reduces the need for two separate ports. It uses PLC smart grid protocol while CHAdeMo uses CAN, which is used for communication between two components. German manufacturers like BMW, Volkswagen, and General Motors use this connector.
- TESLA Supercharger– The supercharging stations can provide DC fast-charging to the Tesla vehicles at a rate of about 120 KW. The Tesla mobile charging unit has different adaptors to allow its customers to charge at all the locations with adaptors for J1772 connector and CHAdeMo plug.
Charging at work
Some employers offer their employees to charge their vehicles at the parking spaces. It is very similar to Home charging wit Level 1 and Level 2.
Charging at the workplace is helpful as-
- It helps to provide you a longer range and for the hybrids, you can use them as a purely electric vehicle.
- You can save Transportation cost and time by charging your electric vehicle for free in office spaces.
- Government Incentives can also be availed some places as the government wants to encourage sustainable transport solutions.
I hope the post gives you an idea about the Charging systems for Electric Vehicles. You can also check out more blogs on Opinion, technical, and Formula One. Also, Let me know what you think about it in the comments.
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